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The single-stranded RNA is tightly bound to nucleocapsid proteins, p7, and enzymes needed for the development of the virion such as reverse transcriptase, proteases, ribonuclease and integrase.A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle.This is, in turn, surrounded by the viral envelope, that is composed of the lipid bilayer taken from the membrane of a human cell when the newly formed virus particle buds from the cell.

The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded integrase and host co-factors.

Once integrated, the virus may become latent, allowing the virus and its host cell to avoid detection by the immune system.

Alternatively, the virus may be transcribed, producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that begin the replication cycle anew.

Two types of HIV have been characterized: HIV-1 and HIV-2.

HIV-1 is the virus that was initially discovered and termed both LAV and HTLV-III.

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